22 January 2024
January effect: potential impact on stocks
What is the January effect?
The January effect is a seasonal phenomenon that describes an apparent upward trend in stock prices in January. But is it real? Well, the historical trend does exist; for example, on the Nasdaq 100, January prices have risen 31 of the 48 times during the month since 1972.
While the recent trend has been less pronounced in the major markets, the last three Januarys have seen upward trends for the S&P 500, DAX 30 and Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE). Some point to the fact that smaller stocks outperform larger ones, but others believe that the January effect is more accurately attributed to a general drop in stocks regardless of company size.
What causes the January effect?
It is often said that the January effect, when observed, is caused by the December sell-off, which is driven by the collection of tax losses to offset realized capital gains. The resulting decline in asset prices is seen by some as an attractive bargain to buy early in the year.
January's stock market trends can also be partly explained by investors investing their seasonal bonuses in equities, while another influence is likely to be investor psychology; many will be looking to build new portfolios in the new year.
How to analyze the January effect?
Analyzing the January effect begins with identifying stocks that may decline during the holiday season. At the end of the calendar year, downturns are often caused by tax-loss selling - when retail investors sell unprofitable stocks in December to offset capital gains liabilities - as well as normal fundamental factors that affect stocks year-round. Such depressed stocks can potentially be exploited by savvy investors; although stock selection, of course, carries a significant degree of risk.
Does January alone have different stock market returns?
It is not only in January that you can see different stock market returns. According to the S&P 500 index data since 1928, January shows an average return of 1%, but this is higher than March (1.2%), April (1.5%) and November (1.5%). September has traditionally been a down month (-0.5%), so it may be wise to take these seasonal patterns into account as well.
How can risk be managed when trading stocks during January?
Effective risk management is essential to trading, and no more so than when stock market volatility kicks in. Make sure you protect your account by setting the right stop loss levels, maintaining a diverse portfolio, managing emotions, and maintaining a positive risk-reward ratio.
What important stock trading knowledge is needed to prepare for the January effect?
Trading fundamentals can prepare you for any January spike that may occur. This involves researching a company's financial health, including revenues, future growth potential, and profit margins, as well as other factors such as market share, key employee appointments, and more. By understanding these things, you will be able to understand the fluctuations in the company's stock price and be able to predict future fluctuations.